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K dialektike subjektu a objektu

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 19 (1964), 5, 415-430.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
By the entering of man into society material reality reaches a stage of development in which one of its organic components, man, becomes as a subject relatively detached from objective reality, and he opposes himself against it as against a prerequisite and subject of his conscious activity, i. e., against object. In the first part of his work the author points out that by the arrival of man, and by the creation of society the natural creature became nothing else but humanized and the natural herd became only sociable. Hence the author emphasizes the relativity of unity and of the difference between nature and society, between subject and object. By the arrival of man, and by the creation of society not only a new „eternal“ quality has originated in material reality, but a new relaťonship of relations, giving reality qualitatively new contents and significance, has come into being. Man, as a subejct of objectively-practical activity is the focus in which the reciprocal transformation of nature and society takes place. In the second part of the work the author analyzes the objectively-practical relation of the subject to the object not only as a foundation and prerequisite of the „disengagement“ of man horn nature but also as a prerequisite and foundation of his human existence and all-sided free development. In the objectively-practical relationship man appears and acts not only as a productive entity, but he exists and acts as a many-sided being, such as thinker, creator, artist etc. In the concluding part of his work the author points at the mechanistical-materialistic and idealistic deformation of the relationship subject-object. He emphasizes that in Marxian philosophy the categories subject and object are not only gnoseological categories but first of all ontological categories of historical materialism, and in this their quality they represent in the reciprocal dialectical acting the main content of Marxistic conception of history and of the Marxistic conception of man.
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