The paper presents a survey of classical and contemporary approaches to abstraction and idealization in the philosophy of science. This first part of the paper provides a brief explication of both terms and focuses on the contributions of Leszek Nowak and Ernan McMullin. Nowak’s notions of gradual concretization and deformation procedures are discussed, as are McMullin’s different types of idealization techniques. The final section of this first part of the paper is devoted to the contributions of Czechoslovak philosophers, especially to Václav Černík, who developed an interest in idealization independently of the Poznan School. The second part of the paper will summarize more recent discussions on this topic.