The paper gives a hermeneutical description of Jung’s theory of complexes and archetypes, in which the complexes are defined as those parts of psyche which have split from it. Thus the human inward could not be conceived as a simple and unified whole. Complexes were understood as neutral “nodal points” of the inner structure of psyche. Jung’s searching for the factors of their formation resulted in articulating of the theory of archetypes which he saw as the invisible “roots of consciousness”. Later on an important connection between the theory of archetypes and Plato’s doctrine of history was postulated. The conception of archetypes was taken as a new interpretation of the latter, going back to A. Schopenhauer. In his articulation of the theory of archetypes Jung was influenced mainly by Kant’s conception of apriori intuitions and categories. In conclusion the author critically compares Jung’s conception with the existential of M. Heidegger, drawing from O. Čálek’s work.