The paper deals with the some questions of the criticism of religion in Marx’s doctoral dissertation that habe been little researched, with special accent on its philosophical principles and results. Marx’s „Promethean atheism“ of the doctoral dissertation rose and developed as a consequence and aspect of „Hegelianidealistic viewpoint“ (V. Í. Lenin). It was a consequence of the confrontation of the idealistic philosophy (dialectical idealism) and religion as a social-ideological phenomenon which took place at the end of the thirties of the XIXth century. In its substance the „Promethean atheism“ was a critical overcoming, first of all, of Hegel’s historical-philosophical conception as well as Fichte’s and Young Hegelian understanding of gaining self-consciousness and of freedom. It was one of the results of philosophical surmounting of the rationalist cult of reason, the conception of „pure thought“ and its godlike forms. Marx’s „Promethean atheism“ must be considered as a clasical outcome and the first critical philosophical overcoming of the German classical idealist philosophy which became a part of the ideologic-theoretical basis of a new revolutionaryscientific philosophy, the dialectical-historical materialism.