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Niektoré filozofické problémy dialektického materializmu v genetike

Filozofia, 31 (1976), 3, 300-311.
Typ článku: State - Filozofické problémy biológie
The paper pays attention to the methods of research of genetic material in the light of dialectics, history of development of genetics — the disclosure of material substance of heredity, the problems of the synthesis of living matter and the specific phenomenon of living matter — heredity. The basic problems of contemporary genetics turned out to be soluble only by means of the complex of individual scientific branches and their methods along with the application of philosophical principles of dialectical materialism. The dialectics has become the methodological basis of theory and methods in genetics. It has been penetrating into the pursueing of genetic processes and its conscious application forms the theoretical synthesis of scientific knowledge. Genetics in its history of development has overcome idealistic views. The elucidation of the chemical substance of gene, the creation of ideas in genetic information and the regulation of its stream, the discovery of genetic code, the formulation of the new idea of the substance of the phenomenon of heredity as a mutual relation of the molecules DNA, RNA and of proteins, gives an impulse to the new methodological approach not only to the problem of heredity,, but also to the problem of origin of life. The achievements of molecular genetics devoted to the synthesis of the most important components of living matter form the presuppositions for the synthesis of „living molecules“. Even though the explanation of this problem may be still far from the final formulation, it proves the origin of life to be soluble materialistically. New discoveries in genetics secure it the more and more significant position in the world of science and its development of spiral character is a typical feature of dialectical development. In sequence of its gigantic discoveries the question of the character of their influence upon the philosophical categories themselves and, eventually, of the formation of some new ones becomes topical.
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