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Človek (osobnosť), kultúra a morálka

Filozofia, 28 (1973), 4, 356-366.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
„The substance of human nature“ can be revealed only by an analysis consisting in the dialectical unity of the biological-anthropological „given fact“ and in the historical concreteness of realizatoin a self-realization of man in work and in social practice. In the basis of forming “human nature“ there are the changing social-economic formations (including capitalism) mainly determined the “bad“ human nature. The new socialist man grows up in the conditions in which the basic changes in the social structure (the abolition of privale ownership of means of production) determine and form the human substance as a manysidedly developed personality. Only in a social system in which exploitation of man by man has been removed and where objective conditions are regularly formed for the development of a real, free, moral personality — a self-realization of man is materialized. A great attention is paid to the analysis of the phenomenon of culture, to ethical categories and to principles, as well as to the marxist-leninist “theory of values“. The author emphasizes that the solution of the whole complex of problems of good and evil, of justice and personal responsibility, of “alienation“ and historical "verification“ of values does not consist only in the correctness of logical statements, neither in the economical and sociological “grouding“ of the problem, nor even in a dissection of "irrational“ elements and components of psyche. The analysis must inevitably be transferred from the logical and ethical sphere to that of complex social and political practice. In connection with the problems of culture and morale the author handles the question of the scientific-technological revolution and its consequences for the development of society and thinking. Social uncertainty, “oversaturation“ of life, an escape into solitude, under the shelter of real or mythical authorities, a fear of “technologization“ of life — these are the results ofthe capitalist social system, which, by its substance and by not solving the basic economic and social problems, yields a broad space to “evil“, immorality and discriminations of various kind. The progressive prospect and in it contained prognostic element of realization of ideas in the material world characterizes the socialist social system. The problems of man (society, culture,morale, good and evil, and the advancement of a manysided personality) can be solved only by “materialization of progressive ideas“ and by creation of adequate political-organizational forms through whichonly humanity and the positive heritage of utopias and immature “historical phantasies“ can be materialized. This will represent a permanent form of life, in which there will reign law, justice, good, morale for all people of this planet — regardless of race, ethnical appurtenance, religion, class- and social differences and all what the hitherto social-economic formations of exploitation have left behind.
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