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K dialektike poznávania a hodnotenia

Filozofia, 25 (1970), 4, 325-336.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The relationship between knowledge and evaluation does not belong to traditional philosophical problems. It came to be the centre of attention only as late as modern axiolological problematic emerged and along with the attempt of contemporary methodology to work out conditions of scientific knowledge. The relationship between knowledge and evaluation has been solved by three types of theories. According to the first ones there exist an identity between them in that sense that both knowledge and evaluation are cognitive processes and in both cases a common end must be achieved: the verity of final statement. According to the second type of theories there is a fundamental difference between knowledge and evaluation and neither can be reduced to another. Knowledge is „objectivational“,its basic meaning is to grasp an object as such excluding whatever subjective factors; on the contrary evaluation involves anthropological and subjective moments. It is the assertion of human creative essence. Finally the third type of theories, advocated also by the author, attempts to treat the dialectical cooperation between knowledge and evaluation within a widely understood cognitive relationships between man and reality. Further the author analyzes on concrete examples a form of interaction and cooperation between moments of knowledge and moments of evaluation. Their most frequence is described: any relation of man to an unknown object (phenomenom) begins with the instinctive attitude that fulfils the function of primary evaluation. The result of this „first impression is important as it decides whether a subject deepens his relation to an object or not. After the primary evaluation the process of knowledge and analysis follows which has a purpose to gather as much information as is possible. At the end, as a rule, the secondary evaluation follows by which a „definite“ statement is made. Naturally this scheme has many modifications in practice; there are cases when a subject is satisfied with the very primary evaluation and there are other cases when a subject verifies again and again even thoroughly justified evaluative attitude or statement. The third part of the paper deals with dialectic of knowledge and evaluation in single mental functions. Doubtless that this dialectic has a unique concretization and unique forms e. g., in perception, imagination, act of will, memory processes and so forth. Modern scientism often inclines towards the view that there is a hierarchical relationship between knowledge and evaluation i. e., that knowledge is superior to evaluation. The author does not agree with this view. There is a division of work between knowledge and evaluation which purpose is to achieve an appropriate orientation of man in the world and by that also a maximum of realization of creative role of man in historico-social context.
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