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Herbert Marcuse a problémy vyspelej priemyselnej spoločnosti

Filozofia, 24 (1969), 4, 409-419.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
Marcuse’s theory of advanced industrial society is dealt with in the present paper. In his early works (e. g., Zur Kritík des Hedonismus, 1938), Herbert Marcuse payed much attention to the problems of social development, freedom, humanism, and morals. It is true that modern society which is analysed by Marcuse especially in his work Der eindimensionale Mensch, represents a system with a high degree of industrialization, with elements of automation, with a high living standard; however, this society does not yield enough, room for the development of the idea of humanism, freedom and self-realization of man, By means of various forms of „reprisals“, modern industrial society confines the development of many-sided personality (,,one-dimensional man“). ; < In connection with the problems of industrial society, the present author also deals in detail with Marcuse’s conception of socialistic revolution. The question of revolution is also important because a „repressive“ society can be converted into a „free“ оце only by means of a radical, qualitative change. In this connection H. Marcuse analyses also the movement of youth (students) and see in it — in the West — a certain „reserve“ of revolution. However, he considers working class as the real bearer of progress and the revolutionary reconstruction of society. A great deal of the present author's considerations is' devoted to Marcuse’s conception of coexistence of two types of the advanced industrial society — capitalism and socialism. In a convincing way he proves that the coexistence of both the social systems is, after all, favorable for socialism; only then, however, when the socialistic social system does not remain only at the level of industrialization and automation. Socialism has to mean not only a higher degree of production, economy, technology, but also of culture, freedom, ethics, and of the development of many-sided personality. In the last part of the paper, the question of the relation between working class and intelligentsia as well as the problem of labour self-government are dealt with. In this connection, the present author once more emphasizes the idea that the revolutionary change of society remains also in the future a historic task of working class. Unfolding the Marxist theory of social development, the author points out in the end that it is necessary — in addition to the assurance of economic and socail conditions of freedom — to investigate also the psychological dimension of man.
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