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Filozofia vedy

Filozofia, 21 (1966), 1, 6-21.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The paper is dedicated to the problem of the relationship of the so-called philosophy of science and the philosophy of man, both with respect to present-time western (Anglo-American) and to Marxian philosophy. The author polemizes with some views at present-time philosophy of science, and demonstrates that it is not „scientistic“ in the sense of earlier positivism, and that it contains traces of influence of other philosophical schools: besides positivism such as realism, tomism, etc. Present-time philosophy of science is concerned also with problems of social sciences, and very often it is not merely a methodological discipline. Some works written about philosophy of science essentially represent an endeavour of amalgamating the results of special sciences into a synthetic image of reality. Marxian philosophy came into being as a philosophy of society and man. However, Engels undertook to create a universal philosophy which was to have its issue in the analysis of special sciences. The Marxian philosophy of science joins up to Engel's programme. However, the conclusions attained by Engels (three laws) are not to be considered as dialectics. The dialectics of nature can be understood as an all-round analysis of the results of special sciences the aim of which is to bring about a synthetic conception of reality, i. e., dialectics as a theory. Marxian philosophy as a science is unique. Owing to its historical development it contains, however, in our times, considerations on two levels: the level of science, scientific thinking, objective cognition of reality on the one hand, and the level of the world experienced by man, of searching for the sense of events, and of comprehending reality on the other. This is a view as seen from two points, and even in Marxism it is not possible simply to compound the philosophy of science and the philosophy of man. Of course, there may exist certain principles the two philosophies have in sommon (metaprinciples) which enable to make assessment of the relationship and function of the philosophy of science and philosophy of man in the framework of Marxian philosophy. These principles ought to be based on the scientific cognition of man and the world.
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