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Odcizení ve vztahu k cíli lidského jednání

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 20 (1965), 2, 138-150.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
Man creates goals in order to appropriate the objective world and himself. The goal attained confirms this appropriation; however, by becoming an objective reality and containing objectivized abilities of the subject there is still the possibility of alienation. The subject deals with its realized goal objectively, thus promoting its alienation. The alienation of the goal and of the result of activity becomes transferred to the entire activity which becomes an alienated activity. By alienated activity man alienates himself from himself, he ceases to be a subject and becomes an object, a thing, a means to attain goals existing outside of him. In the capitalistic society alienation is deep and many-sided. The socialistic revolution destroys the capitalistic form of alienation by offering man socialism and communism as a goal. However, it is not able to eliminate all types of alienation: in view of the fact that alienation flows from the objectivization of realized goals, there is a permanent and constant possibility of alienation. Burocratism and methods of the personality cult are appearances of political alienation. There is also the so-called „technical“ alienation, i. e., the submission of man to technique. Alienation stops to exist everywhere where man is a real subject, where he has a goal to be attained, and where this goal is a goal of his own. The abrogation of alienation is to be comprehended as an act of setting a goal to oneself, and thus to create conscious subjects of activity.
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