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Dialektika kvantity a kvality, obsahu a formy v Marxovom „Kapitáli“

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 19 (1964), 2, 117-127.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The work-s of the classical authors of Marxism, among them particularly those of Marx, first of all his „The Capital“ are characterized by that they apply the dialectical —materialistic method of cognition in the process of study on capitalistic economy and its laws. This is the reason why „The Capital“ was straightforwardly considered by Lenin to be a textbook for dialectical logic, method and gnoseology. From the abundant methodic contents of „The Capital“ I have chosen for this paper some facts of capitalistic economics, particularly those relatet to goods and labour, in order to demonstrate by means of objective dialeetis of quality and quantity, content and form the cognitive supremacy of the Marxist method over methods applied by the classical authors of bourgeois theoretical political economics. I am demonstrating that the theoretical political economy of Marx has become superior to the theoretical economy of Ricardo because of the fact that this author by his mechanist —materialist method — taken from natural sciences of his time — did no more but an analysis of the subject of cognition, seeing in it only quantitative determinations, and reducing internal contradictions to a unilateral identity. At variance with this teaching, Marx — applying an analytical method with synthetic character — disclosed the objective contradictive unity of concrete and abstract, individual and social labour; as to goods produced, he disclosed in the product of this contradictive labour the contradictive unity of utilitary value and value. In the value of produced goods Marx has revealed their economical quality. He also demonstrated that the productive relations of people in capitalistic economy represent a specific social quality appearing in an objective form of mutual human relationship. This particular sociality of capitalistic production is generated from the exchange of commodities produced by individual producers. In,order to understand this phenomenon it is necessary to carry out not only qualitative but also quantitative research. I am concluding my paper with the cognition that socialistic economy and its components have their own specific economical and social quality and form. Goods and social labour are losing their fetishistic character that was their characteristical feature in capitalism since labour becomes gradually and by the intermediary of the State immediately social.
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