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K niektorým aspektom kategórie hmoty a bytia v marxis­tickej filozofii

Filozofia, 37 (1982), 3, 391-404.
Typ článku: State
In the paper the author deals with categories „matter“ and „being“, laying stress on their divergent understanding. One group of Marxist philosophers conceives being as the material and so they identify being and matter. The other group understands under the category „being“ not only matter but consciousness, too. The author inclines ito the opinion of the second group and he shows that inclusion of being in consciousness does not mean a matter of convention only but it follows from the fact that being of man as the natural-social being is not possible without consciousness. It is, therefore, inecessary to include Into the characteristic of being consciousness also. Being is not contradiction of consciousness. The Contradiction of consciousness is matter anly which can be determined as a philosophical category just in relation to consciousness. The predicate of objectivity has, therefore, sense in the context of Marxist philosophy only in 'relation to human consciousness. In the paper Engel’s conception of being ais an open question is further analysed. The author holds that objective reality which has been cognized in some extent in its concrete forms stands out as the object. The objective reality, not determined as the object, transgresses the frontiers of our horizon and in this sense it is ain open question. Every scientific theory, every model of the universe or scientific conception of the W'Orld is, therefore knowledge of objective reality as an object whose concrete qualities beyond its frontiers we can only guess. Thus it is an open question which can be anwered by historical process of cognition only.
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