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Historizmus Leninovho myslenia

Filozofia, 25 (1970), 6, 585-599.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The contribution of Lenin as a thinker to Marxist philosophy of history consists in his creative expounding and completion of Marx’s historism. It is Lenin’s merit that Marx's conception of man’s historicity becomes an actual starting-point of a historic change and this fact created junctions between theory and practice that contributed essentially to the development of Marxist theory and in its framework also to thoughts of historism. In Lenin’s thinking, when compared with Marx, the perspective of the cognitive approach to theory is changed; when for Marx it was first of all the aim of knowledge, it is for Lenin, in the fisst place, the starting-point of an actual revolutionary practice. The objective revolutionary character of the historic situation that is in the background of this change played the role of a social catalyst of a dialectical synthesis in which Lenin created a complex cenception of a historic change and of man’s role in its realization. Lenin fought for this conception against the opinions reducing the sources and regularity of the historic motion to its partial moments, first of all to its subjective human starting-points, as it was in the case of the narodnik „subjective sociology“, er to its various objective aspects, as various objectivist tendencies in the Russian „legal Marxism“ and outside its grounds had attempted. The revival of Marx’s ideas of the materialist conception of history as a general source of ideas of the revolutionary movement represents in Leninism an impulse towards a critical analysis of social reality as an objective starting-point of programme conclusions for a subjective engaging of revolutionary forces. The emphasis on a historic activity of these forces has its own objective causes in the acute sharpening of the contradictions of the capitalist society and in the development of the revolutionary subjectivity — of the proletariat and its theory — as the agents of their solution. The success of a revolutionary change as the aim of the socialist movement has thus inseparable objective and subjective preconditions the connection of which it is necessary to check up continuously by means of self-reflective and self-corrective activity of the theory during its realization. Lenin's personality is in this respect distinctly exempt from the traditional framework of historical evaluation. He is neither an empiric practician of the revolutionary movement, nor its doctrinaire theoretician; he comprises in himself both the theoretician of the revolutionary practice and the practician of the revolutionary theory. In Lenin’s thinking the development of historism is completed, i. e. his own historicity is understood as a pledge towards history: historism only as a historic, i. e. historicly mediated theory of historicity of man and society and their historic changes secures its permanent position in history, which more and more urgently requires its intervention at the contemporary high level of consciousness of man’s social activity. Lenin’s historism may be thus defined as the consciousness of changeability of man’s hitoric being, which is aware of its pledge to engage itself in the progressive development as the starting-point of a revolutionary historic change.
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