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K úlohe rozumu a citov pri tvorení kategórie morálnej povinnosti

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 20 (1965), 1, 64-75.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
Every society creates rules according to which its members behave (i. e., also a system of moral norms) on the basis of the cognition of reality. The categories of morality are the expressions of the different aspects of moral relations. The category of obligation expresses the bounden duty to act according to a stipulated moral norm flowing from the firm belief in the rightfulness and usefulness of moral norms. Its contents is a result of evaluation supported by objective cognition. As an activizing and directing component of moral consciousness the category of obligation performs an important social function. The evaluation consists in the invalidation of the interests of a certain social group, individuum, or of society as a whole; in the field of morals its results are being transferred into activity through the category of obligation. Hence the effectiveness of the category of obligation depends on the measure in which its contents issues from objective truth, from the concrete historical situation. The absolutization of the category of obligation entails its falling away from the life of society. In the field of moral sentiments it is the sense of duty which corresponds to the category of obligation; the sense of duty belongs to social sentiments. It originates elementarily and plays a supporting part in the formation of the category of obligation and its application on concrete situations. The elimination of antagonism in the material life of society is a prerequisite for the elimination of class limitedness in social consciousness and a condition for an ever increasing approachment of all ideological forms to the objectively truthful cognition. The harmony between the psychological and ideological components of social consciousness is the prerequisite for its full and elastic Utilization in the practical life of society.
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