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Sociaiistické výrobní vztahy jako dialektická totalita

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 20 (1965), 1, 21-37.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
Dialectical movement cannot be reduced to origin and cessation, and the laws of wholes already stabilized cannot be reduced to structural relations. The basis of movement of reality is the proper history of dialectical wholes, i. e., that movement which is already fully determined by the internal contrasting tendencies of these wholes, by their internal laws. The stage of the origin of any dialectical whole is a stage of its pre-historical movement in the course of which determination by external conditions is still predominant over internal determination occurring by immanent internal contradictions. Marx, analyzing capitalistic correlations of production, was on principle making a distinction between the epoch of the prehistory of capitalism in which the economic development of production in the capitalistic way was determined by internal conditions of foreign trade originating still in conditions of disparity and isolation of feudal economy, and the epoch of the proper auto-development of capitalism where the original external conditions of the origin of capitalism become an ever anew reproduced result of internal auto-development of capitalism. The internal auto-development incorporates on the one hand the pre-historical processes by which it originated, on the other hand it is the source of the genesis of new, newly originating dialectical totalities. It is the internal contradictiveness of the original dialectical totality which lawfully causes that the originally secondary element of contradiction becomes the primary factor lawfully leading to its own dialectical negation and to the origin of a qualitatively new dialectical totality. The internal contradictiveness of the original dialectical totality creates an incessant dialectical transition from this — from the viewpoint of development — genuinely lower dialectical totality to a — again from the viewpoint of development — higher dialectical totality. The dogmatic view at socialistic correlations of production and at the entire socialistic society has interpreted also the epoch of developed socialistic build-up in which social processes both in the Soviet Union and later also in the other socialistic countries were determined by socialistic social relations — all this from the pre-historical point of view — as if socialistic society was determined in the first line by the laws of world capitalistic system, i. e., as if its life was not determined first of all by its internal laws. An extreme absolutization of the pre-historical view at socialistic social relations is the system of the theoretical opinion of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. According to this unrightful conception the only mature economic basis which in world relationship determines the forms of social movement, are still the laws of international capitalism. Germs of this basically erroneous approach can be found already in Stalin’s conception of socialistic social relations, i. e., in the conception according to which external conditions of capitalistic encirclement are more important than the internal laws of socialistic social relations. The centrally controlled detailed division of tasks was the specific method of socialistic economy m the Soviet Union in an epoch in which socialistic correlations of production in that country were still in a stage of origination, w7hen they were not yet determined by their own internal laws, where the controversy with capitalism was still the main contradiction of this socialistic society being in a phase of origination. The theoretical core of the practical renaissance of Leninism occuring in the socialistic states following the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is that socialistic society is to be understood as determined by its own internal contradictions just the same as Marx comprehended capitalistic society.
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