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K problému nevedomia u Freuda

Philosophica Slovaca, 1 (1946), 1, 156-170.
Typ článku: Články
After a short historical introduction we discuss the problem of unconscious as it is learned by Freud. The Unconscious is, he says, the very psychical reality; the conscious thinking is to it in a analogical relation as our sensory perception to Kant’s »Ding an sich«. The Unconscious is not governed iby the law of reality, it’s purpose is to protect the individuum and to maintain it’s equilibrium. If thel individuum succeeds in building up a strong »Ego«, which is able to make a good use of sublimation, the evolution is normal. If the »Ego« is not able to master the antagonistic tendencies by sublimation, an oppression of thoughts is needed. The reaction through mistakes in action, dreams and neuroses leads to a perturbation of equilibrium. The Unconscious, says Fireud, is the only possible explanation of the continuity of psychical processes. The main argument for all these assertions are dreams, mistakes in action and speech, and neuroses. Modem psychology has many objections against that standpoint. 'Psychoanalysis does not start form facts, if explains facts from a presupposed' theory. There is a contradiction in asserting that the Unconsious is the psychical reality and that it consists of oppressed thoughts. The whole theory operates more on psyohpaths than on normal men. Very many phenomena, emphasized by Freud, can be explained by remains of infantile symbolical thinking.
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