Marx never questioned distributive justice although his theoretical researches are based on his criticism of capitalism and exploitation (labor theory of value). The paper offers a comparison of the classical Marxian theory with the contemporary critical Marxian theory as well as with J. Rawls’s theory of justice with regard to applying the Marxian theory in China’s economic reform. Rawls underestimates the role of the relations of production, his theory of justice as fairness being a synthesis of the reward principle and the equality principle under the economic conditions of capitalism. The analysis of the theory and practice of China’s economic reform leads to two conclusions: 1) Distribution and redistribution are based on different principles of justice. 2) Neither of the above mentioned principles could be used in practice without deformations, as the establishment of a fair society is too a complex task.