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Publication Details

Man and the Dialectics of History

(Original title: Človek a dialektika dejín)
Filozofia, 24 (1969), 1, 15-25.
Type of work: Papers and Discussions
Publication language: Slovak
Universal dialectical laws of history are being concretely realized in the framework of the whole scale according to the creation of active human subject. It is the very historic human practice, which determines the concrete form of the immanent flow of history. Man is an active creator and factor of historical progression. Historical progression is contradictive and mankind does not proceed without conflicts and dramatic clashes. However, it is by means of these contradictions that man’s freedom and humanity increases and becomes emancipated. Therefore, it can be said for good reasons that they are historical anthropological constants. Gradation of freedom lies in a more and more penetrating assertion of the factor of human decision in the formation of history on the basis of deep and complex knowledge of possible alternatives. The democratizing process of society and the full use of potential possibilities of socialism forms the conditions for the self-realization even of the socialistic system proper, to the real self-government of society. The so-called historic retribution, the irony of history or Nemesis, are the expressions of a theoretical vacuum. We meet with them most often in crisis situations which befall unexpected and striking — owing to the fact that the historical factors have not been cognitively controlled or their conception was reduced. The building up of a universal theoretical model of the concrete dialectics of history crystallizes and differenciates with the increasing adequacy by a maximum intensification of the cognitive endeavor of long decades. Genial initiators of modern thought of several humanistic areas participate in it. In spite of all its complexness, this model is entire and shows a clear-cut specificity of its structure. Marx himself, the founder of modern humanities, integrated the cultural values created by ages and, at the same time, inspired their further development and by means of his own example — considerably contributed to the effort at a marxist integration of later discoveries. As regards many regional models of socialism and the regularities of the development of socialism, it must be taken into account that any effort to extrapolate and universalize them may be only temporal, i. e., until the historical conditions last from which they arose, and until it is tolerated by the deep dialectic regularities of the historical progression. Our epoch got ripe for the scientific technological revolution. This revolution inevitably influences the inner social, economic and cultural processes in the individual countries. It inevitably influences even the gradual crystallization of superstructures on the federative basis. Of course, only federative contexts and organizations on the basis of the democratic principle of harmony of national, social, political and cultural interests and not on the basis of the big-power (and hence labile) positions can bring about a really immanent and not ephemeral historical progression for the benefit of the advancement of the humanization of all mankind.
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