In the paper the basic goals of philosophical anthropology of Scheler’s type are analyzed and ways and methodological procedures which are applied by contemporary bourgeois anthropology in realization of its projebt are investigated. The author lays stress on the presentation of Man as a whole, on the effort to unify the research in philosophy and in particular sciences. She shows in the works of Scheler, Plessner, Gehlen, Portmann, Bollnow and Landmann that the original goal turned out to be an abstract principle and that these thinkers did not develop it into a conceptionally accomplished and consistent theory. The intention to make synthesis of approach as applied in philosophy and in special sciences is branded by deep antinomies and it confines to one-sided preference, even to extreme overestimation of one scientific discipline. The result of such approach is not a complete picture but a reduction of Man to a partial phenomenon of his existence („spirituality“, capability of reflection, transcendental subjectivity or biological-physiological mechanisms).