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Vzťah teórie a praxe ako hlavná otázka v marxizme

Filozofia, 26 (1971), 1, 32-44.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The notions of „theory“ and „practice“ have, on the philosophical level of consideration, their own specificality by which they differ from the current usage. Practice, in the sense of Marx’s theory, is the life process of individuals who are materiály active and theory is a moment of this process and at the same time its expression of ideas. Theory as the moment of practice aims at expressing the social movement in its wholeness and at the same time in the inner differenciation. By comprehending the basic, essential tendencies and regularities theory offers a basis for understanding large complexes of phenomena. The first part of the paper is dealing with the ontological aspects of the relation between theory and practice from the point of view of theory as the moment of practice. The subjective, and in its framework the class contingency of theory, is here pointed at which is the main determinating factor both in creation of a progressive, scientific, truthful theory and in creation of fantastic and Utopian ideas and of a false ideology. In regard of these forms of theory there originates the question of truthfulness of theory and the problem of its verification. The second part of the paper has been devoted to this question; here the gnozeological function of practice has been investigated. Starting from Marx’s Theses on Feuerbach it points out that the practical social process is one of a subjective-objective character and thus cannot be understood only as an application of theory. Similarly, the theory that is a reflection and expression of practice and wants to be at the same time a project of a future practice does not always find an exact realization in practice. In the social process theory not only lags behind, but also overtakes and similarly practice surpasses theoretical project. Finally, only thanks to this mutual exceeding the new can originate, thanks to this the social life can be grasped as a creative process. Lenin’s ideas of practice as a criterion of knowledge are investigated here more in detail, as he expressed them namely in Materialism and Empiriocriticism and in Philosophical Notebooks.
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