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Publication Details

To Rehabilitate Marx

(Original title: Rehabilitovat Marxe!)
Filozofia, 22 (1967), 4, 371-378.
Type of work: Papers and Discussions
Publication language: Czech
As the title of the present paper, the author uses a thought by Maximilian Rubel — that just because Marx is in such a favour, it is necessary for him to be rehabilitated. While works by Carnap, Husserl, Keynes were creatively unfolded by a whole army over the whole decades, the original Marx’s dialectics was being changed into a dead scheme by both the theoretists of the Internationale II and those of the period of the personality cult. The present renovation of Marx’s original philosophy is, this time, often aimed exclusively at some aspects of Marx’s work. In the period of the personality cult an opinion was accepted that Marx had been the author of the conception that social relations are directed by natural-historical inevitabilities. An idea dominated that before socialism, the course of history had been determinated by such „iron laws“, while socialism was said to installe the control of human projects. The present paper shows Marx's conception of dialectic determinism to have nothing in common with fatalism. It also shows that Marx understood social regularities as internally contradictory tendencies which are enforced by man’s activity. A conception of Marxist philosophy as a dialectical synthesis of all progressive tendencies of human knowledge is then being unfolded. Integration of non-Marxist philosophical trends into Marxism must issue from a dialectic analysis of the philosophical presuppositions of these trends, from the revealing of the concealed contradictions within these presuppositions. While formalization of knowledge conceives the individual phenomena as anonymous specimens of a general algorithm, and philosophical anthropology presupposes an intuitive comprehensibleness of existentional relations, Marxist dialectics reveals the real dialectical mediation between the individual phenomena in concrete, unique historical situations.
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