The paper aims at philosophical, methodological, semantic, and axiological outlines of the ecological problem. Deriving from contemporary conceptions of nature (F. Capra, J. E. Lovelock. A. Naess, G. Snyder) it points out the necessity of changing the methods and approaches in investigating the reality, as well as the principles of viewing the world. Related ground problems are examined at the same time: the possibilities and the limits of the rationalistic pattern of reasoning and its prospects, the relation between scientific and non-scinetific knowledge, the relation between rationality and morality. The pressuposed paradigmatic turn and the philosophical. methodological, and axiological starting points of this „new reasoning about world“' are outlined as well.