An intensive development of scientific knowledge needs a formulation of the Marxist theory of thinking. The philosophic approach towards a theory of thinking is understood as a conception which explains the unity of social tasks, social practical activity and the internal conditions of the brain activity and the processes of thinking which are taking place in the brain. Thinking is neither monolitic nor hierarchically metastructured, but it is total, innerly contradictory, polar. Among the main dialectical antithese, manifesting themselves in thinking may be counted the contradiction of external and internal stimuli, generating and inhibiting stimuli, the actually oriented thinking and historical-social forming of the structure of thinking. Specification of the principal poles in the process of thinking is necessary because of the adequate understanding of thinking in its totality. Selfcognition and selfregulation of thinking is simultaneously a precondition for selfcognition of the subject and for correct understanding of creative thinking.