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Publication Details

The Category of Acquirement in Marxist Philosophy

(Original title: Kategorie osvojení v marxistické filosofii)
Filozofia, 31 (1976), 2, 173-186.
Type of work: Papers - Marx's Philosophical Legacy
Publication language: Czech
The category of acquirement of reality takes a central position in Marxist philosophy in investigating the subject-object relations. The Hegelian trend in Marxism comprehended the cognitive relation as the basic model of subject-object relation. Practice itself appeared then only the third member of cognition. But man,, according to Marx, acquires the world in a manysided mode as a total being. The category of acquirement coheres closely with the notions as self-realization, work, reflexion, objectivation. The contrary to acquirement is alienation. The legal-economic expression for both terms is possession and misappropriation. The acquirement of the world is material and mental. The economic appropriation of reality in the act of production (which includes distribution, ex-change and consummation) forms the material basis of the whole life process, commands the wealth of natural materials and energies and subordinates them to social power. The very forms of sociality and institutions represent the social form of acquirement. Theoretical cognition falls into the category of mental acquirement of reality. It differs from art not only by the logical form, but also in its aim. Art is rendered among the forms of mental acquirement and at the same time it falls into the series determined by the laws of pleasure and displeasure. Sensuousness is not in it a lower grade, but a substantial form. It preserves a seeming naturalness of the whole. Religion is an acquirement that at the same time is an alienation. Acquirement stands contrary to the philosophical notions as self-awareness or self-knowledge,,, as it does not stem from the pure philosophical consciousness, but from the life practice of mankind. Thus it appears in its significance only with the socialist opinion. In the process of acquirement man manifests himself as a social being. This is why into this term even the class- and political aspects are projected. Acquirement has various semblances in the class society. The apparent universality in capitalism is complemented with total alienation. The real universality of acquirement is brought about only by the advanced socialism.
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