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Fenomenologická ontológia Jean-Paul Sartra

Otázky marxistickej filozofie, 20 (1965), 2, 113-124.
Typ článku: State a diskusie
The study is an attempt to expound the basical parts of Sartre’s phenomenological ontology, elaborated particularly in his work „ĽÉtre et le Néant“, essentially, however, accepted also inthe last philosophical work of Sartre, the „Critique de la raison dialectique“. The author endeavours to demonstrate that it is based on these three assumptions: 1. The assumption of human reality as an activity aimed by means of intentional acts at being, and its realization in human existence. 2. The assumption of the being present in consciousness not in the form of reality of things but in the form of phenomena, i. e., in a form subjecting itself to human conceptions in which being as it is becomes realized as a being for man. 3. The assumption that the essence is not inherent in the subjects of external reality as their inevitability, a law, but that essence is the sense of the object, its meaning in which the given object is revealed by man. Concluding the study, the author states that Sartre's phenomenological ontology is to be seen as a serious endeavour to overcome both the ontology of idealism and the ontology of the traditional, i. e., metaphysical and vulgar materialism. The author discloses some aspects of materialistic philosophy burdened with the remains of the traditional mode of thought, i. e., aspects which are the source of philosophical dogmatism and a heavy hindrance in the way of a creative development of the philosophical legacy of the clessics of Marxism-Leninism.
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