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Publication Details

Science and its Method

(Original title: Veda a jej metóda)
Filozofia, 26 (1971), 6, 606-626.
Type of work: Papers and Discussions
Publication language: Slovak
The paper elaborates some thoughts introduced in the study „Metodológia ako exaktná veda“ (Filozofia 1969, n. 4), namely the systemic character (model) of science and of its object. In the first part the system S is defined as a set of elements that are interconnected in a precisely limited way. According to the sorts of forms of connections we discern various sorts of systems. If there are in S all relations unambiguous (functions) we obtain (1.1), where Pi are the properties of elements. The elements that only determine but are not determined form the basis of the system (set B). The designation of an element by an element (elements) can be mono-one-way (1.6), double-one-way (schemes (a) and (b)) and poly-one-way in general. The double-way systems are more complicated (with feed-back) i. e. either with one aim (schemes (c), (d), (1.9)) or with more aims and memory (schemes (e) and (g)). From the mentioned point of view science is a learning system with memory, while the memory of science is its history and net of information. Science cannot be adequately characterized as a double-way system, but only as a poly-way (cyclic) system (scheme (h) and ( ) and the life of science as a series of cyclic systems following one another. Isolated cyclic systems have no basis. Science is characterized in the study as an open dynamic system, while it is open not only towards reality that it wants to reflect by methodological proceedings, but t owards itself. Separate sciences are not isolated, but they form a unity, so that there are not sciences, but only a system of sciences. In the paper various kinds of systems of sciences are investigated, namely Comte’s mono-one-way system, poly-one-way, feed-back and cyclic system (scheme (1)). At the present stage not even in the cyclic system are all sciences of equal importance and influence, but they are centralized around several or around one science. Science is finally open towards the social milieu in which it- lives (that is to say it depends on the scientific policy, technology and economy (scheme (m)). Science is. finally characterized as a pulsating system opening and closing all the time. In the second part the chief stages of the history of the object of science are briefly investigated. Namely the period when the classes were the object of science (the Aristotelian conception of the object of science), the systems and isomorphisms among them, i. e. abstract systems (the Galilean-Leibnitzian conception of the object of science) and, at last, the systems and transitions among the non-isomorphic dynamic systems (the dialectial conception of the object of science).
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