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Publication Details

The Concept of Dual Trends in Genetics and Biology

(Original title: Ke koncepci dvou směrů v genetice a biologii)
Filozofia, 21 (1966), 2, 129-140.
Type of work: Papers and Discussions
Publication language: Czech
The concept of „dual trends“ in genetics and biology and in evolutionism forms the basic component of the theory of Lysenko’s biological school. It is derived, in the first place, from the use of various erroneous methodological and philosophical conceptions. It is an artificial construction objectively, historically and methodologically false. Its spread produced negative results. The theory of „dual trends“ owes its origin to the concept of the strugle between materialism and ideologism in philosophy, having been transferred into biological sciences. Its formulation was affected by the action of a whole series of wrongly construed philosophical and methodological questions as well as by principles of a politico-practical nature, propagated at the time of the rise and the monopolistic position of Lysenko’s biological school. It was, in the first place, the vulgarly-socialising approach towards natural sciences which became particularly manifest in the thesis on natural sciences as „the arena of class struggle“, and in the wrong interpretation of the „party-character“ of natural sciences. Lysenko's school took as its starting point, the theory of monolithism which became apparent both in the concept of the „dual trends“ and in the methods of making their own theories and interests prevail. In the settling of conflicts between Lysenko’s adherents and their opponents, recourse was also had to the vulgarized interpretation of the role of popular masses and public opinion in the solution of scientific issues. More recently, under the effect of expert and philosophical criticism of Lysenko’s conclusionsj some of his philosophically-minded die-hards have attempted a somewhat more complex explanation of his concept, speaking of some „synthetical“ or „ecologico-synthetical“ and „cytologico-analytical“ trend in genetics. This terming is designed to perfect the original division into „Mitchurinian biology“ and „Weisman-Morganism“. This new re-cast of the concept of „dual trends“, however, does not alter its essence, and remains as devoid of support as its original form had been.
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