This essay offers a reflection on and a summary of the author’s book on nationalism. The book is a critical assessment of well-established theories, or rather approaches to nationalism and argues that these are inadequate in addressing nationalism in contemporary settings. The premise is that studies of nationalism are too preoccupied with questions about the modernity versus ancientness of the nation, the construction of identity, its authenticity and the character of nationalism itself. The author argues that many of these questions, whilst relevant to our understanding of the history and politics of nationalism in the past, nevertheless fall short in explaining its role, politics and actions today when the states and nations are facing very different challenges. The new challenges reflect the increased relevance of politics beyond the state, trans-national ethnic networks, violence and general internationalisation of ethnic relations. The latter, in particular is the subject of this essay.