The paper is concerned with the investigation of non-Marxist starting points of conceptions of culture that have been formed in the course of the 20th century. As the most important ones are quoted philosophical conceptions, constructed upon the heritage of Hegel, Kant and representatives of the philosophy of life. Starting from this heritage, three important positions in relation to the sphere of culture have been developed and they became the starting points of the rise of non-Marxist cultural conceptions. They are signified as positions of traditionalism and anthropologism. In the paper basic ideas of the representatives of the above streams and diverse variants of conceptions of culture, built upon the latter, are analyzed.