The paper deals with Kant's peace project seen in a broader philosophical-theoretical context of the 18th century. The author focuses not only on Kant's essay Towards an Eternal Peace, but he examnines also his other works confirming his deep interest in this issue. He argues, that the problem of peace is a constitutive part of Kant's philosophy of history and it might be seen in a sense as its culmination point. Following the contemporary philosophical interpretations of the issue (E. Cassirer, K. Jaspers, G. Funke, G. Picht) he refuses to see Kant's endevour as a program of establishing the eternal peace. Rather, Kant points out just the principles and outlines possible ways of the ethical-political development of nations and states towards the establishment of the international law and thus also of the lasting peace. In the author's view Kant's ideas could be of help in articulating the criteria, according to which we should understand and explain the contemporary politics.